Dose-dependent neutralizing-antibody responses to vaccinia.
To evaluate the humoral immune responses to smallpox-vaccine stocks currently available in the United States (Dryvax; Wyeth) and to generate data for comparison of responses to newly produced lots of smallpox vaccine, we evaluated dose-response effects, using undiluted and diluted smallpox vaccine. At 28 and 56 days after vaccination, serum samples were obtained from vaccinated subjects (N=674) who had participated in a randomized, single-blinded trial of an undiluted or a 1 : 5 or 1 : 10 dilution of smallpox vaccine and who subsequently were tested for plaque-reduction neutralizing-antibody titer. All subjects who developed a vesicle after vaccination also developed neutralizing antibodies by day 28. Subjects given either a 1 : 5 or 1 : 10 dilution of vaccinia had significantly higher neutralizing-antibody titers than did subjects given undiluted vaccine. Larger lesion size and fever after vaccination were associated with significantly higher neutralizing-antibody titers after vaccination.