The 1997 Annual Renal Transplantation in Children Report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS).
This report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS), covering the years 1987-96 (January 15, 1997), analyzed data on 4898 patients who received 5362 transplants. Over the 10 yr of the study, 21.3% of the patients were under the age of 6 yr. Of the disorders that lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), structural and developmental anomalies of aplasia, dysplasia, and obstructive uropathy accounted for over 1500 patients. Despite the potential therapies for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), there has been little change in its incidence and this lesion continues to be the most common cause of renal failure and transplantation among acquired diseases. Eighty-nine per cent of patients with a functioning graft continue to receive cyclosporin A (CsA) 5 yr post-transplantation, and 84% of patients continue to receive azathioprine (AZA), whereas 26% of patients receive alternate-day steroid therapy at 4 yr post-transplant. Thirty-seven per cent of the living donor (LD) recipients and 47% of cadaver donor (CD) recipients were treated with the polyclonal T-cell antibody ATG/ALG for induction, and the monoclonal T-cell antibody, OKT3, was utilized for induction in 12% of LD patients and in 19% of CD patients. Twenty-five per cent of the 5362 transplants (1333) have failed over the 10-yr period. Graft survival is 90% at 1 yr and 74% at 6 yr for LD kidneys, and is 80% at 1 yr and 58% at 6 yr for CD patients. The most common cause for graft failure (30%) is chronic rejection. For recipients of LD grafts, relative risk (RR) factors for graft survival are African-American race (RR = 2.1, p < 0.001) and greater than five prior transfusions (RR = 1.6, p < 0.001). Prophylactic anti-T-cell antibody reduces the risk of graft failure (RR = 0.76, p = 0.009). For recipients of cadaver kidneys, risk factors are: recipient age < 2 yr (RR = 2, p < 0.001), donor age < 6 yr (RR = 1.3, p = 0.005), and absence of induction T-cell antibody (RR = 1.31, p < 0.001).