Risk factors for vascular thrombosis in pediatric renal transplantation: a special report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study.
Vascular thrombosis remains a major cause of graft failure, accounting for 12.2% of failed index transplants and 19.2% of repeat transplants. We conducted a special study to identify the risk factors for vascular thrombosis. A total of 4394 transplants (2060 living donor [LD] transplants and 2334 cadaver donor [CAD] source transplants) were evaluated. The respective vascular thrombosis rates for LD and CAD transplants were 38/2060 (1.8%) and 100/2334 (4.2%) (P<0.001). Univariate analysis showed that the rate of graft loss due to thrombosis was significantly higher in younger children (less than 2 years of age) as compared with older age groups (2-5 years, 6-12 years, and more than 12 years of age) (9.0% vs. 5.5%, 4.4%, and 3.5% for CAD transplant recipients and 3.5% vs. 3.4%, 0.7%, and 1.9% for LD graft recipients). Recipients of kidneys from cadaver donors less than 5 years of age had a significantly higher thrombosis rate (8.3%) than did recipients from older donor groups (5-10 years, 4.5%; greater than 10 years, 3.2%). Recipients of kidneys with cold ischemia time greater than 24 hr also had a higher thrombosis rate (5.6%), as compared with recipients of kidneys with a shorter cold ischemia time (3.2%). Recipients of antilymphocyte therapy on day 0 or day 1 were at dimished risk of graft loss due to thrombosis (2.2% vs. 4.1%, P=0.001). Comparable trends were seen for both LD and CAD organ recipients. LD organ recipients with a history of prior transplantation had a significantly higher rate of thrombosis as compared with those who received a primary transplant (4.6% vs. 1.6%, P=0.005). For both LD and CAD organ recipients, the occurrence of acute tubular necrosis was a significnat risk factor for the development of thrombosis. Regression analysis showed that for LD organ recipients, a history of prior transplantation increased the risk for thrombosis, whereas increasing recipient age had a linear decreasing risk effect. The use of antilymphocyte antibody or cyclosporine on day 0/1 decreased the risk for thrombosis. For CAD kidney recipients, organ cold ischemia time greater than 24 hr increased the risk for thrombosis. The use of antibody induction therapy, donors greater than 5 years of age, and increasing recipient age were factors that decreased the risk for thrombosis.